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McInelly and Kelsey also reported the thickness of the sediment packages overlying both terraces and revised the mapped faults that displace each terrace. A combination of 13 uranium-series ages on Balanophyllia and extralimital northern species within the faunal assemblage ass the Paseo del Mar terrace to MIS 5a Fig.
Grove et al. Methods adopted to measure the present-day elevation range of reported indicators vary from hand level and altimeter surveys to mapping with modern differential GPS and digital elevation models. A poor rating 2 applies to incomplete chronologic data or data that provide only a minimum or maximum age on the RSL indicator. Review article 16 Jul Correspondence : Schmitty B.
Thompson thomschm oregonstate. Quality assessments for RSL elevation reflect a combination of measurement precision, the specificity of the reference datum for the elevation, and the range of and uncertainty in the indicative meaning sensu Rovere et al. Age asments for MIS 5a and 5c sea level indicators arise from a wide variety of radiometric and non-traditional geochronologic methods.
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Alexander pioneered the interpretation of west coast marine terraces as indicators of paleo-sea level and tectonic uplift. Not all primary references report the indicative meaning of an RSL indicator, and thus for a subset of sites we calculated the indicative meaning with the IMCalc software Lorscheid and Rovere, in order to as an elevation quality rating. No radiometric ages constrain the age of the Harris Butte and Brookings terraces. Orr first mapped marine terraces on northwestern Santa Rosa Island, and later efforts by Dibble and Ehrenspeck and Pinter et al.
Early mapping efforts documented terraces along much of the California coastline Ellis, ; Davis, ; Woodring et al. McInelly and Kelsey provided further geomorphic cross-sections for the Whisky Run and Pioneer terraces at the Cape Arago and Coquille point sites.
If geochronology only ass an indicator to a generic interglacial such as MIS 5then this warrants an average rating 3. McInelly and Kelsey revisited the region and presented a representative geomorphic cross-section that documented deformation of the Whisky Run terrace by the Pioneer anticline.
The following sections include a summary of the types of geomorphic and sedimentological sea level indicators included in this review Sect. No radiometric ages exist for the second terrace; Rockwell et al.
Bradley and Griggs,has been alternately ased to MIS 5c using models of the diffusion of paleo-sea cliffs Hanks et al. Tectonic deformation can alter the elevation of an indicator by tens to hundreds of meters Alexander, ; Chappell, and glacial isostatic adjustment by similar magnitudes Creveling et al.
Constructional coral reef terraces are prevalent across the North American Atlantic coast, the Caribbean, and the far-field regions see Chappell,for an example of this indicator. Additional sedimentary features, such as eolianites, submerged beach ridges, and exposure surfaces, make up the remainder of the local inferences. Griggs mapped four emergent shore platforms along the central Oregon coastline, of which we focus on the lowest two, the Pioneer and Whisky Run terraces.
Based on stratigraphic position, Muhs et al. Section 6 addresses the data availability. In this review we compile and document the elevation, indicative meaning, and chronology of marine isotope substage 5a and 5c sea level indicators for 39 sites within three geographic regions: the North American Pacific coast, the North American Atlantic coast and the Caribbean, and the remaining globe.
A rich literature discusses the chronostratigraphic asment of the Davenport and Highway 1 terraces. Numeric chronologies for indicators composed of in situ carbonate utilize uranium-series dating Barnes et al.
Marine platforms make up the largest portion of these data, particularly for the North American Pacific coast see Muhs et al. Field observers first documented emergent marine terraces on the North American Pacific coast in the early 20th century. For sites without a specified reference datum e.
When available in the original publication, latitude and longitude coordinates for indicator sites are reproduced for the WALIS database; when unavailable, coordinates were interpreted from publication maps using Google Earth and noted accordingly. Hanson et al. For each location, the geochronological method is indicated by color; numeric, minimum, and maximum age type by shape; and the confidence of the age by border color.
Based on these age asments, Kelsey et al. See Fig. Kelsey et al. Teal bars represent the full elevation range reported in the primary publications along with the corresponding measurement error, if any, in black bars. Section 7 summarizes future research directions. Stratigraphic relationships between adjacent sea level indicators have been extensively used to develop relative chronologies for sea level indicators, especially for sites with marine terrace sequences consisting of adjacent MIS 5e, 5c, and 5a terraces Adams, ; Merritts and Bull, ; McInnely and Kelsey, Quality assessment of indicator age reflects how well the geochronology translates to a stage vs.
Muhs et al.
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For those sites for which primarily field workers did not report elevation uncertainty, we noted this absence in the database and ased a measurement uncertainty based upon the defined accuracy of the elevation measurement method. An excellent rating 5 attributes an RSL indicator to a narrow window within a substage of MIS 5, whereas a good rating 4 more generally ass an RSL indicator to a substage. Adams documented landward tilting of the Pioneer and Whisky Run terraces and the faults that vertically displace them.
While the elevation of the overlying second terrace at this locale was not reported by Rockwell et al. This entry focuses on the Pioneer and Whisky Run terraces documented in Griggs Subsequently, 6 uranium-series ages on corals and bryozoans, 10 amino acid ratios on bivalve mollusks Mya truncata and Saxidomus giganteusand oxygen isotope stratigraphy on mollusk shells supported the MIS 5a age asment for the Whisky Run terrace Kennedy et al.
Since then, extensive documentation of regional MIS 5a and 5c paleo-sea level indicators has yielded 18 sites, which are included in the present review.
These sites were summarized by Simms et al. We report Davenport and Highway 1 as well as Western and Wilder terrace elevations and chronologies as separate entries in the database see Figs. In contrast to the above chronology, Perg et al. The majority of this publication Sect. Woodring et al.
Sediment-mantling sea level indicators can also yield numeric chronologies through luminescence dating Duller, ; Grove et al. These relative sea level indicators, comprised of geomorphic indicators such as marine and coral reef terraces, eolianites, and sedimentary marine- and terrestrial-limiting facies, facilitate future investigation into marine isotope substage 5a and 5c interstadial paleo-sea level reconstruction, glacial isostatic adjustment, and Quaternary tectonic deformation.
Amino acid racemization AAR creates relative chronologies, especially in conjunction with other amino acid ratios from sea level indicators benchmarked by radiometric ages Mitterer, ; Miller et al. Note the scale break on the vertical axis necessary to present indicator elevations for sites with rapid tectonic uplift. Here we catalogue the elevation, with uncertainty if listedof a given indicator as reported in the primary publication s without modification.
Rockwell et al. Finally, chronologic data unable to distinguish between two or more Pleistocene epoch interglacials warrant a rejected quality rating 0. A rich literature catalogues the legacy of mapping globally distributed MIS 5a and 5c reef tracts, shore platforms, and other marine- and terrestrial-limiting sedimentological indicators for the purpose of measuring the local peak sea level achieved during these ice-volume minima Griggs, ; Alexander, ; Bretz, ; Land et al.
No elevation for the Pioneer terrace was reported in the text of this article, though Simms et al.
Any RSL indicator of poorer quality than described above receives a very poor quality rating 1. Any terrestrial- or marine-limiting indicator that serves only as an upper or lower bound on RSL receives a rating of rejected 0. Early chronologies for many west coast sites come from Kennedy et al. As noted below, many such studies reported geomorphic or chronological data that apply to multiple adjacent sites. The Q1 terrace was ased to MIS 5a based upon three uranium-series minimum ages on marine and terrestrial mammal teeth and bones found in the overlying sediment deposits Fig.
We included in the WALIS database two uranium-series ages on corals considered unreliable by the authors. While a uranium-series age on bone and a radiocarbon age on detrital charcoal provide a minimum terrace age of MIS 3 Hanson et al.
The database includes sites excluded from reviews. We emphasize that this database reports measurements of uncorrected, present-day elevation of various relative sea level indicators that will enable the user to apply corrections based on the most current data- and model-based predictions.
Five sediment samples overlying the lowest terrace yielded three ages per sample from three energy stimuli: optically stimulated blue-light luminescence OSLoptically stimulated infrared luminescence IRSLand thermoluminescence TL. Alexander first mapped the emergent marine terraces cropping out in the Santa Cruz, CA, region, for which we focus on often conflicting interpretations for the age of the laterally extensive, sediment-mantled terrace formerly named the Santa Cruz terrace as well as the two higher-elevation Western and Wilder terraces later documented by Bradley and Griggs Bradley and Griggs utilized seismic surveys to subdivide the Santa Cruz terrace into three constituent terraces, which, in ascending order of elevation, include the Davenport, Highway 1, and Greyhound terraces.
For each terrace all of the reported numeric ages and age asments are represented, even when conflicting. Griggs completed early work on the Oregon coast, documenting four terraces, of which we focus on the Whisky Run and Pioneer terraces. Seven uranium-series ages on bone and mollusk two of which are maximum ageseight amino acid ratios, and the cool-water aspect of the terrace fauna as the Cojo terrace to MIS 5a Rockwell et al. Kennedy et al.
The lowest San Miguel terrace is overlain by a veneer of fossiliferous cemented gravel and marine sand, which itself is overlain in areas by alluvium Johnson, ; Muhs et al. The data detailed in this review and the associated database comprise a set of geomorphic and sedimentological indicators of past sea level, for which a comprehensive overview can be found in Rovere et al.
Figures 2 and 3 include the terrace elevations reported by Kelsey et al. For active margins, this convolution serves as an opportunity to constrain rates of Quaternary tectonic deformation Adams, ; Marquardt et al. The present elevation of MIS 5a and 5c sea level indicators reflects a of convolved processes, including, but not limited to, tectonic deformation and glacial isostatic adjustment GIAwhich require carefully applied corrections to reconstruct peak global mean sea level GMSL.
Of these possibilities, Simms et al. Conflicting age asments between marine isotope stages warrant a very poor quality rating 1. Thompson, S. Inquiry into MIS 5a and 5c sea level highstands enriches our understanding of last interglaciation sensu lato paleoclimate e.